Mental Health

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD


Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event, such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, military combat, sexual or physical assault, or other life-threatening events. PTSD is characterized by symptoms such as nightmares, flashbacks, and avoidance behaviors, as well as feelings of guilt, shame, and anger.


The causes of PTSD are not fully understood, but research suggests that a combination of genetic, biological, and environmental factors may play a role.


Some common causes of PTSD include:

  • Trauma: experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event is the most common cause of PTSD.
  • Genetics: Studies suggest that certain genes may make a person more susceptible to developing PTSD.
  • Brain chemistry: Imbalances in certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, may contribute to the development of PTSD.
  • Environmental factors: Trauma, stress, and major life changes can increase the risk of developing PTSD.

Symptoms of PTSD can vary widely, but some common characteristics include:

  • Intrusive memories of the traumatic event such as flashbacks, nightmares, and distressing memories
  • Avoidance behaviors such as avoiding places, people or activities that remind them of the traumatic event
  • Negative changes in mood and cognition such as feeling detached, feeling guilty or ashamed, and having negative thoughts about oneself or the world
  • Increased arousal and reactivity such as feeling easily startled, irritable and having trouble sleeping


To diagnose PTSD, a healthcare professional will typically conduct a thorough evaluation, including a patient interview, a review of the patient’s medical and psychiatric history, and a mental status examination. They may also use diagnostic tools such as structured interviews, questionnaires, and rating scales to assess the severity of symptoms.


Treatment options for PTSD include:

  • Psychotherapy such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and prolonged exposure therapy (PE) which helps individuals process their traumatic experience and learn coping skills
  • Medications such as antidepressants which can help manage symptoms such as anxiety and depression
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) which is a form of psychotherapy that uses eye movements to help process traumatic memories
  • Group therapy and support groups
  • Mindfulness-based therapy which helps individuals develop a non-judgmental attitude towards their thoughts and feelings
  • Family therapy: which can help educate and support family members, and help them understand how to best support the person with PTSD


It’s important to note that treatment for PTSD is typically tailored to the individual and may involve a combination of different approaches. It’s important to work closely with a healthcare professional to find the best treatment plan and to prevent future episodes. With the right support, individuals with PTSD can manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.


For further support and information please book an appointment with our specialists….




Dr Ibrahim Yahli MD MRCPsych

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